Propagation and Cultivation Techniques of Luan tree

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Propagation and Cultivation Techniques of Luan tree

Luan tree is a deciduous tree. Its young leaves are mostly red in spring and yellow in autumn. It is very beautiful. It blooms in summer and is covered with golden trees, which is very spectacular. It should be used as shade tree, street tree and garden tree, as well as shelter forest, soil and water conservation and barren mountain greening tree species. The crown is nearly spherical and the branches are open; Odd pinnate compound leaves, sometimes with 2 pinnate compound leaves, conical inflorescence terminal, yellow flowers, red spots at the base of petals, miscellaneous.


Capsule ovate, swollen saccate, 3-ribbed. The capsule is elliptic, the top is blunt and has a short tip. The flowering period is 8-9 months and the fruiting period is 10-11 months. Luan tree likes light and is a positive tree, but it can withstand semi shade, cold, barren and saline alkali; Deep rooting and strong sprouting ability; Resist smoke and dust and some gas pollution, such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc.


There are five species of Luan tree. The common Luan tree with wide distribution is Huangshan Luan tree. Its cold resistance is slightly lower than that of Luan tree, but the top bud is more developed than Luan tree. Therefore, the pseudo binary branching habit is not as obvious as Luan tree, so it is easier to cultivate a good tree shape, which has been widely favored by people in the industry in recent years.


Luan tree sowing and propagation

(1) Seed collection: Luan fruit ripens from September to October. Select the excellent single plant with good growth, straight stem shape, open crown, full fruit and in the strong age as the seed collection mother tree. Collect it in time when the fruit is reddish brown or orange and the capsule has not cracked, otherwise it will fall off by itself. But it should not be picked too early, otherwise the seed germination rate is low. Due to the great difference of cold resistance of seeds from different provenances, local seeds should be selected as far as possible.


(2) Fruit treatment: after the fruit is collected, the peel and stem shall be removed, and it shall be dried in the air or spread out in the shade in time. After the capsule is cracked, it shall be threshed by beating, and the seed shall be cleaned by screening method. The seeds are black, round and spherical, with a diameter of about 0.6cm, a seed yield of about 20%, a 1000 grain weight of about 150g, and a germination rate of 60% ~ 80%.


(3) Seed storage and pre sowing treatment: the seed coat of Luan tree seed is hard and impermeable. If it is not treated by germination, it often does not germinate or the germination rate is very low in the second spring sowing. Therefore, it is best to sow in the autumn of that year and let the seeds complete the germination stage in the 5 gallon pot soil, which can save the processes of seed storage and germination. In the spring of the second year after a winter, the seedlings were unearthed early and orderly, and grew healthily.


However, when sowing in autumn, the seeds are placed in the field for a long time, and the management of sowing land is more troublesome. Therefore, the stratification germination method is also used in production. In the late autumn, the terrain is high and dry, the drainage is good, and the pit is dug in the leeward and sunny place. The pit is 1 ~ 1.5m wide and about 1m deep above the groundwater level and below the frozen layer. The pit length depends on the number of seeds. The bottom of the pit can be paved with a layer of gravel or coarse sand, about 10 ~ 20cm thick, and a bunch of grass handle is inserted in the pit for ventilation.


Mix the sterilized seeds with wet sand and put them into the pit. The volume ratio of seeds and sand is 1 ∶ 3 or 1 5, or one layer of seeds and one layer of sand are staggered. The thickness of each layer is about 5cm. The humidity of sand should be able to hold it into a ball with your hand, do not water out, and disperse when you let go of your hand. Install it until it is about 20cm away from the ground, cover it with 5cm river sand and 10 ~ 20cm thick straw, and dig drainage ditches around it. In March of the next year, the seeds were taken out and sown directly.


Dry stored seeds are soaked in warm water at 80 ℃ about 40 days before sowing, and then mixed with wet sand to promote germination. When the number of split mouth seeds reaches more than 30%, they can be sown in drill.


(4) Sowing: Luan trees generally use seedling trays to raise seedlings. The sowing ground requires loose and breathable soil, good water retention and drainage performance, certain fertility and no underground pests and bacteria. For sowing in spring, it is best to plough the sowing land once to three times in autumn and winter to promote soil weathering, store water and preserve moisture, and eliminate weeds, diseases and pests. The land preparation should be flat and fine. For arid areas with little rain, the bottom water should be irrigated before sowing.


The germination rate of Luan seeds is low, and the amount of seeds should be large, generally 50 ~ 100g per square meter. Sowing in March in spring, apply base fertilizer on the selected plot, and sprinkle carbofuran granules or zinc sulfur phosphorus granules, 3000g to 4000g per mu for insecticidal. The wide strip sowing is not only conducive to the ventilation and light transmission of seedlings, but also convenient for management.


After sowing, the seeds shall be covered with a layer of loose fine soil with a thickness of 1 ~ 2cm to prevent the seeds from drying and losing water or being endangered by birds and animals. Then water it with small water once, and then cover it with grass, straw and other materials to improve the ground temperature, maintain soil moisture and prevent the growth of weeds and soil hardening. After about 20 days, the seedlings will come out and the straw will be removed.


Hard branch cutting is often used in Luan tree cutting

(1) Collection of cuttings: after the trees fall leaves in autumn, combined with the flat stubble of 1-year-old seedlings, collect the trunk with base diameter of 0.5 ~ 2cm as seed strips, or collect the current year sprouting seedling trunk and bare branches of perennial Luan tree as seed strips, and bundle them while collecting. After finishing, it shall be buried with wet soil or sand immediately so that it does not lose water for ear cutting.


(2) Cutting of cuttings: take out the buried cuttings and cut them into small sections of about 15cm. The upper cutting mouth is cut flat, 1.5cm away from the bud, the lower cutting mouth is cut close to the bud, and the lower cutting mouth is cut obliquely.


(3) Winter storage of cuttings: the location of winter storage should be in the shade of the back where it is not easy to accumulate water. The ditch depth is about 80cm, and the width and length of the ditch depend on the cuttings. Lay a layer of wet sand with a depth of about 2 ~ 3cm at the bottom of the ditch, and put the cuttings vertically in the sand storage ditch. Pay attention to the upward direction of leaf buds, place them in a single layer, and then cover them with 50 ~ 60cm thick wet sand.


(4) Cutting: it is better to use loamy soil with rich humus, loose soil, good ventilation and water retention, and apply rotten organic fertilizer. Soil cutting shall be prepared in autumn, deeply cultivated and carefully cultivated, leveled and thinned, and cutted the next spring. The distance between plants and rows is 30cm50cm. First drill holes with a wooden stick and insert directly. The cuttings expose 1 ~ 2 buds.


(5) Post planting management: maintain soil moisture, properly build shade and apply nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, conduct appropriate irrigation and topdressing, and control water and fertilizer during seedling hardening period to promote lignification.


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